从编译安装到URL重写

Web技术 jikk345 1230℃ 0评论

目录

前言
环境介绍
Nginx介绍
编译安装Nginx
配置文件解释
配置Nginx
实现URL Rewrite将不同浏览器的请求响应不同页面
总结
前言

本文主要实现使用Nginx作为Web服务器,并使用URL Rewrite实现将手机对Web站点的请求专门重写到一个专门为手机定制的Web页面中。

环境介绍

笔者只有一台虚拟机, 桥接到室内的路由器便于手机进行访问, IP地址为192.168.1.103。

Nginx介绍

engine x发音同Nginx,作者是Igor Sysoev,是目前世界上占有率第三的Web服务器软件. Nginx是一款轻量级的Web服务器,可实现反向代理,URL rewrite等功能。

Nginx拥有消耗内存小、可支持高并发连接达5W个、还支持热部署、高性能的网络IO模型等特性。淘宝还基于Nginx进行二次研发出Tengine。

编译安装Nginx

需要安装Development Tools和Server Platform Development包组和zlib-devel, pcre-devel, openssl-devel等包。

[root@server1 ~]# yum groupinstall "Development Tools" "Server Platform Development" #安装包组
[root@server1 ~]# yum install pcre-devel openssl-devel zlib-devel -y   #安装相应软件
[root@server1 ~]# tar xf nginx-1.6.1.tar.gz  -C /usr/src/  #解压nginx源码包到/usr/src/目录中
[root@server1 ~]# cd /usr/src/
[root@server1 src]# cd nginx-1.6.1/
[root@server1 nginx-1.6.1]# groupadd -r nginx   #创建组
[root@server1 nginx-1.6.1]# useradd -r -g nginx nginx   #创建用户
[root@server1 nginx-1.6.1]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/src/nginx --sbin-path=/sbin/ --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --with-http_ssl_module --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_gzip_static_module
    #关于编译选项的参数含义,请查阅官方文档
[root@server1 nginx-1.6.1]# make && make install

配置文件解释

关于Nginx的一些工作原理我们这里不做解释,但是我们解释一下Nginx的配置文件中常用选项的意思
nginx的主配置文件是nginx.conf,配置文件的位置随着编译的配置选项而定,我们这里是/etc/nginx/nginx.conf文件

Nginx作为web服务器时主配置文件一般分为三段, main和event{},http{}、我们分别进行介绍

main和event{}的配置

运行相关的配置
    user User_Name [Group_name];  #运行Nginx进程的用户和组. 默认为nobody
    error_log /path/to/error_log;  #是否启用错误日志,并指定错误日志的存放位置, 可指定为相对路径
    error_log /path/to/error_log notice;  #指定错误日志的记录的级别
    pid /path/to/pidfile; #指定守护进程pid文件的位置   

性能相关的配置
    worker_processes number;   #运行的worker进程的个数, 默认为1    
    worker_cpu_affinity cpumask ...; #定义worker进程和cpu的绑定, 这里不做过多介绍, 不了解的可自行查找
    time_resolution interval ; 计数器的解析度,记录日志时时间的精确性
    worker_priority number; #worker进程的优先级

事件相关的配置
    accept_mutex on|off;   #master进程调度用户请求至worker进程的算法,轮询和随机. on表示轮询
    use [epoll|rtsing|select|poll];   #指明使用的事件驱动模型
    worker_connections number; 指明一个worker进程能够接受的最大请求书

http{}的基本配置

  1. server{}: 定义一个虚拟主机
        示例:
            server {
                listen 80;
                server_name www.anyisalin.com;
                root "/htdocs/www"
                }
    2. listen
        语法: listen address[:port];
        示例:
            listen 127.0.0.1:8000;
            listen 127.0.0.1;
            listen 8000;
            listen *:8000;
            listen localhost:8000;          
    3. server_name 
        语法: server_name name...;
        支持通配符:
            匹配顺序:
                1. 精确匹配         
                2. 从左向右匹配通配符   *.anyisalin.com
                3. 从右向左匹配通配符   anyisalin.*
                4. 匹配正则表达式      ~^*\.anyisalin\.com$
                5. default_server 

    4. root
        语法: root path;

    5. location
        语法: location [=] [~] [~*] [^~] URL {...}
        功能:根据用户请求的URI来匹配定义的location
            =: 精确匹配检查
            ~: 正则表达式匹配
            ~*: 正则表达式匹配, 不区分大小写
            ^~: URI的前半部分匹配, 不支持正则表达式

            示例:
                server {
                    listen 80;
                    server_name www.anyisalin.com;
                    location / {
                        root "/htdocs/www";
                        }       
                    location /imgs/ {
                        root "/htdocs/imgs"
                        }
                    location ~* \.php$ {
                        root "/htdocs/php"
                        }
                    }

配置Nginx

搭建一个基本的Nginx Web服务器

编辑Nginx配置文件效果如下

 server {
      listen       80;
        server_name  www.anyisalin.com;

        location / {
            root   /htdocs/html;
            index  index.html index.htm;
            error_page 404 =200 404.html;
            }
        }

创建对应网页文件

[root@server1 /]# mkdir htdocs/html -pv     #创建文件夹
    mkdir: created directory `htdocs'
    mkdir: created directory `htdocs/html'
[root@server1 /]# cd htdocs/html/
[root@server1 html]# echo "

www.anyisalin.com

” >> index.html #创建网页文件 [root@server1 html]# echo “Sorry, Page Not Found” > 404.html #创建404页面 [root@server1 html]# nginx -t #检查配置文件语法 nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful [root@server1 html]# nginx #启动nginx

测试页面访问正常
0.webp
1.webp
实现https

创建CA并签署Nginx证书
这里对于openssl的操作不做解释, 有兴趣可以看我以前的文章

创建私有CA并自签证书

[root@server1 html]# cd /etc/pki/CA
[root@server1 CA]# (umask 077; openssl genrsa -out private/cakey.pem 2048)
[root@server1 CA]# openssl req -new -x509 -key private/cakey.pem -out cacert.pem -days 7300
    You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
    into your certificate request.
    What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
    There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
    For some fields there will be a default value,
    If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
    -----
    Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:CN
    State or Province Name (full name) []:AH
    Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:HF
    Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:AnyISalIn LTD
    Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:ops
    Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:www.anyisalin.com
    Email Address []:webadmin.anyisalin.com

[root@server1 CA]# touch serial index.txt
[root@server1 CA]# echo 01 > serial

创建nginx证书

[root@server1 CA]# cd /etc/nginx/
[root@server1 nginx]# mkdir ssl
[root@server1 nginx]# cd ssl/
[root@server1 ssl]# (umask 077; openssl genrsa -out nginx.key 1024)
Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus
..++++++
.............................................................................................++++++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
[root@server1 ssl]# openssl req -new -key nginx.key -out nginx.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) []:AH
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:HF
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:AnyISalIn LTD
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:ops    
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:www.anyisalin.com
Email Address []:webadmin.anyisalin.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

签署证书

[root@server1 ssl]# openssl ca -in nginx.csr -out nginx.crt -days 365
Using configuration from /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
        Serial Number: 1 (0x1)
        Validity
            Not Before: Apr  4 13:57:02 2016 GMT
            Not After : Apr  4 13:57:02 2017 GMT
        Subject:
            countryName               = CN
            stateOrProvinceName       = AH
            organizationName          = AnyISalIn LTD
            organizationalUnitName    = ops
            commonName                = www.anyisalin.com
            emailAddress              = webadmin.anyisalin.com
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: 
                CA:FALSE
            Netscape Comment: 
                OpenSSL Generated Certificate
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
                A3:68:8D:FD:49:FD:08:1B:E3:09:45:9F:3B:48:35:1E:0F:38:C4:92
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 
                keyid:26:2E:FE:F6:52:41:DC:2F:C6:C1:4F:19:A0:BE:F6:14:99:93:54:4B

Certificate is to be certified until Apr  4 13:57:02 2017 GMT (365 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y


1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

修改配置文件

server {
    listen       443 ssl;
    server_name  www.anyisalin.com;
    ssl_certificate      /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.crt;
    ssl_certificate_key  /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.key;

    location / {
        root   /htdocs/html;
        index  index.html index.htm;
        error_page 404 =200 404.html;
        }
    }

测试https

重载服务进行测试

[root@server1 ssl]# nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@server1 ssl]# nginx -s reload

未导入证书前
2.webp
导入证书后,因为chrome自身问题认为证书不可靠,但是已经成功
3.webp

实现URL Rewrite将不同浏览器的请求响应不同页面

URL重写的相关配置选项

语法:rewrite regex replacement flag;

例如:
    rewrite ^/images/(.*\.jpg)$  /img/abc/$1 break;

效果: 
    http://www.anyisalin.com/images/1.jpg --> http://www.anyisalin.com/img/abc/1.jpg

flag:
    last: 被重写完后不会继续匹配下面的rewrite规则, 由User_agent重新发起对新URL的请求, 但是会重新匹配rewrite规则
    break:被重写后不会继续匹配下面的rewrite规则, 由User_agent重新发起对新URL的请求, 但是不会继续匹配
    redirect:以302(临时重定向)返回新的URL
    permanent:以301(永久重定向)返回新的URL

5.webp

6.webp
针对用户代理URL Rewrite

修改location为如下配置

location / {
root   /htdocs/html;
index  index.html index.htm;
error_page 404 =200 404.html;

       if ($http_user_agent ~* Android) {        #匹配到User_Agent包含Android跳转到/Moblie中
       rewrite ^(.*)$ /Moblie/$1 break;
        }

      if ($http_user_agent ~* Chrome) {         #匹配到User_Agent包含chrome跳转到/Chrome中
      rewrite ^(.*)$ /Chrome/$1 break;
        }

      if ($http_user_agent ~* MSIE) {          #匹配到User_Agent包含MSIE跳转到/IE中
      rewrite ^(.*)$ /IE/$1 break;
        }     

}

创建对应的网页文件

[root@server1 /]# mkdir /htdocs/html/{Chrome,IE,Moblie}
[root@server1 /]# echo "Welecom Moblie" > /htdocs/html/Moblie/index.html 
[root@server1 /]# echo "Welecom Chrome" > /htdocs/html/Chrome/index.html 
[root@server1 /]# echo "Welecom IE" > /htdocs/html/IE/index.html

测试

手机

640.webp
chrome

7

8.webp

总结

这次主要简单介绍了一下Nginx作为Web服务器的简单使用方法,和针对不同用户代理进行跳转,过几天我还会写Nginx作为代理服务器的相关文章,敬请期待!

转载请注明:清麟博客 » 从编译安装到URL重写

喜欢 (1)
发表我的评论
取消评论

表情

Hi,您需要填写昵称和邮箱!

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址