MySQL 5.5主从复制实践

数据库 jikk345 1211℃ 0评论

一、环境说明

两台安装好的MySQL 5.5的数据库。以Master与Slave区分
Master:
IP地址(172.16.1.210):

[root@Qinglin-A /]# ifconfig eth0
eth1      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:0C:29:B4:0A:5D  
          inet addr:192.168.1.210  Bcast:172.16.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0

MySQL版本:

[root@Qinglin-A /]# mysql -V
mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.5.32, for Linux (x86_64) using readline 5.1

Slave:
IP地址(172.16.1.220):

[root@Qinglin-B /]# ifconfig eth0
eth1      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:0C:29:0E:20:1D  
          inet addr:192.168.1.220  Bcast:172.16.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0

MySQL版本:

[root@Qinglin-B /]# mysql -V
mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.5.32, for Linux (x86_64) using readline 5.1

82b62a79-e80d-4778-9e6c-85844f43f787

二、实战部署

MySQL 主从同步都是异步的复制方式,即不是严格实时同步的数据同步。
实战前必须知道的知识
a. 主从复制是异步的,逻辑的SQL语句级的复制。
b. 同步时,主库有一个IO线程,从库有两个线程,IO和SQL线程。
c. 实现主从复制的必要条件,主库要开启binlog功能。
1、Master开启binlog,并设置server-id
注:server id 是避免不同机器或实列ID重复,选择0<server-id

[root@Qinglin-A /]# vim /etc/my.cnf
server-id       = 1
log-bin=mysql-bin
[root@Qinglin-A /]# egrep "log-bin|server-id" /etc/my.cnf 
server-id       = 1
log-bin=mysql-bin

2、Slave设置server-id
注:Slave的binlog是不开启的,如果开启那就是双主同步,性能很一般。

[root@Qinglin-B /]# vim /etc/my.cnf 
server-id       = 3
[root@Qinglin-B /]#  egrep "log-bin|server-id" /etc/my.cnf 
server-id       = 3
#log-bin=mysql-bin

3、Master和Slave同步重启mysql

[root@Qinglin-A /]# /etc/init.d/mysql restart
Shutting down MySQL. SUCCESS! 
Starting MySQL.. SUCCESS! 
[root@Qinglin-B /]# /etc/init.d/mysql restart
Shutting down MySQL. SUCCESS! 
Starting MySQL.. SUCCESS! 

4、Master效验bin-log与server-id
注:slave只需要查看server-id就可以

mysql> show variables like "log_bin";
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| log_bin       | ON    |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> show variables like "server_id";
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| server_id     | 1     |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

5、master创建并授权网段访问的从库个帐户,使slave可以访问master
下列为创建Slave用户,刷新权限,并查看用户权限。

mysql> grant replication slave on *.* to 'rep'@'192.168.1.%' identified by'123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql>  flush privileges; 
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql>  show grants for rep@'192.168.1.%';  
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for rep@192.168.1.%                                                                                               |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'rep'@'192.168.1.%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9' |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

6、记录Master的binlog位置与点,请切记下列标黄处,后期会用到。

mysql>  show master status;
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| File             | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| mysql-bin.000001 |      332 |              |                  |
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

7、锁表备份Master的所有数据库
-A 备份全部数据库
-B 导出几个数据库
-F –flush-logs 开始导出之前刷新日志 注意:假如一次导出多个数据库(使用选项–databases或者–all-databases),将会逐个数据库刷新日志
-x 锁表,保证数据的一致性
–events 导出事件
–master-data=2 如果=2就生成就是注释,不执行。

[root@Qinglin-A /]#  mysqldump -uroot -p'123456' --events -A -B -F --master-data=2 -x |gzip >/home/bak_`date +%F`.sql.gz
[root@Qinglin-A /]# ll /home/bak_2016-08-02.sql.gz 
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 144365 Aug  2 15:16 /home/bak_2016-08-02.sql.gz

8、slave恢复数据库,因为我加大B参数,所以不需要指定库恢复
注:从master的备份文件到slave可以考虑用scp传到slave中,这里不做演示。

[root@Qinglin-B guanqinglin]# gzip -d bak_2016-08-02.sql.gz      
[root@Qinglin-B guanqinglin]# ls
bak_2016-08-02.sql
[root@Qinglin-B guanqinglin]# mysql -uroot -p123456

9、导入slave的master信息(slave操作)
操作前,请使用如下方法测试一下,用户和远程登陆是否OK,执行如下命令,登录到那mysq>界面为成功。

[root@Qinglin-B /]# mysql -h 192.168.1.210 -urep -p123456
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 7
Server version: 5.5.32-log Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> 

退出上面执行的mysql 界面,重新使用root登录Slaver的mysql界面执行导入Master信息操作。

[root@Qinglin-B /]# mysql -uroot -p123456                
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5
Server version: 5.5.32 Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO
    -> MASTER_HOST='192.168.1.210',
    -> MASTER_PORT=3306,
    -> MASTER_USER='rep',
    -> MASTER_PASSWORD='123456',
    -> MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000001',
    -> MASTER_LOG_POS=332;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.12 sec)

10、slave查看master info信息

[root@Qinglin-B /]# cat /application/mysql/data/master.info 
18
mysql-bin.000001
332
192.168.1.210
rep
123456
3306
60
0
0
1800.000
0

11、slave开启slave开启

[root@Qinglin-B /]# mysql -uroot -p123456                          
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 6
Server version: 5.5.32 Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> start slave; 
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

12、检查,有两个标黄的OK,则是正常启动(Seconds_Behind_Master 0 是落后主库的秒数,0是正确)

mysql> show slave status\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.1.210
                  Master_User: rep
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 107
               Relay_Log_File: Qinglin-B-relay-bin.000004
                Relay_Log_Pos: 253
        Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 107
              Relay_Log_Space: 456
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

三、测试环节

1、Master创建一个数据库

mysql> create database qinglin;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.09 sec)

2、slave 查看从库relay文件中是否存在主库创建的create数据库qinglin
注:下列是截取的内容

[root@Qinglin-B data]# mysqlbinlog Qinglin-B-relay-bin.000004 
SET @@session.collation_database=DEFAULT/*!*/;
create database qinglin
/*!*/;
DELIMITER ;

3、检查salve是否已经创建了一个数据库

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| qinglin            |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

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